See I told ya. Holidays would only mean eveynight I'll be hooked on the Net and keep blogging.
Today was boring at the least, the only respite being the cricket match between India and Australia at Kuala Lumpur. I expected India to win this after a "OK" bowling performance but the much-hyped Indian team put up a pathetic show crashing to 35/5 . I dunno what happened next and i dont bother.Just a sec, my friends here say the match got cancelled due to rain...how ironic would it have been if India lost due to rain - the second time Rain played traunt.It wasn't to be. Thank.........rain. Ya,thank rain , obviously, for cancelling the match.
Moving on to other issues....once again a visit to the library proved fruitful quenching my thirst for some sort of interesting reading (dont say books relating to syllabi are interesting...i wouldnt ,in a lifetime ,agree).
Oh! Did i title this post as "Chemistry Exam ........" .Never mind .
Talk not of things, my friend , that which were screwed up, or that which will be screwed up.
Next post will be on Monday night 11:00 PM. Watch out for the description of "How to screw up ur Mid-sems
And now a short course on "How to comment on a blog page" .
1.Read the blog carefully
2.Search for the end of the blog and specially for "posted by *#$#@"
3.Next to it will be "# comments" . This is a link .
4.Click on it and comment.
5.There it is ...the page where u can praise me (hopefully??? Cmon yaar I've given u a course) or screw me up for whatever reasons u have.
Saturday, September 16, 2006
See I told ya. Holidays would only mean eveynight I'll be hooked on the Net and keep blogging.
Posted by Unknown at 9:44 PM
Here is something i promised in my very first blog.....some technical stuff.Not everything is my original work (obviously).
Everything in quotes taken from Wikipedia
Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile computer memory NVRAM technology, which has been in development since the 1990s. Continued increases in density of existing memory technologies, notably Flash RAM and DRAM kept MRAM in a niche role in the market, but its proponents believe that the advantages are so overwhelming that MRAM will eventually become dominant.
Unlike conventional RAM chip technologies, data is not stored as electric charge or current flows,but by magnetic storage elements. The elements are formed from two ferromagnetic plates, each of which can hold a magnetic field, separated by a thin insulating layer. One of the two plates is a permanent magnet set to a particular polarity, the other's field will change to match that of an external field. A memory device is built from a grid of such "cells".
Reading is accomplished by measuring the electrical resistance of the cell. A particular cell is (typically) selected by powering an associated transistor, which switches current from a supply line through the cell to ground. Due to the magnetic tunnel effect, the electrical resistance of the cell changes due to the orientation of the fields in the two plates. By measuring the resulting current, the resistance inside any particular cell can be determined, and from this the polarity of the writable plate. Typically if the two plates have the same polarity this is considered to mean "0", while if the two plates are of opposite polarity the resistance will be higher and this means "1".
Data is written to the cells using a variety of means. In the simplest, each cell lies between a pair of write lines arranged at right angles to each other, above and below the cell. When current is passed through them, an induced magnetic field is created at the junction, which the writable plate picks up. This pattern of operation is similar to core memory, a system commonly used in the 1960s. This approach requires a fairly substantial current to generate the field, however, which makes it less interesting for low-power uses, one of MRAM's primary disadvantages. Additionally, as the device is scaled down in size, there comes a time when the induced field overlaps adjacent cells over a small area, leading to potential false writes. This problem, the half-select (or write disturb) problem, appears to set a fairly large size for this type of cell. One experimental solution to this problem was to use circular domains written and read using the giant magnetoresistive effect, but it appears this line of research is no longer active.
Another approach, the toggle mode, uses a multi-step write with a modified multi-layer cell. The cell is modified to contain an "artificial antiferromagnet" where the magnetic orientation alternates back and forth across the surface, with both the pinned and free layers consisting of multi-layer stacks isolated by a thin "coupling layer". The resulting layers have only two stable states, which can be toggled from one to the other by timing the write current in the two lines so one is slightly delayed, thereby "rotating" the field. Any voltage less than the full write level actually increases its resistance to flipping. That means that other cells located along one of the write lines will not suffer from the half-select problem, allowing for smaller cell sizes.
A newer technique, spin-torque-transfer or Spin Transfer Switching, uses spin-aligned ("polarized") electrons to directly torque the domains. Specifically, if the electrons flowing into a layer have to change their spin, this will develop a torque that will be transferred to the nearby layer. This lowers the amount of current needed to write the cells, making it about the same as the read process. There are concerns that the "classic" type of MRAM cell will have difficulty at high densities due to the amount of current needed during writes, a problem STT avoids. For this reason, the STT proponents expect the technique to be used for devices of 65 nm and smaller. The downside is that, at present, STT needs to switch more current through the control transistor than conventional MRAM, requiring a larger transistor, and the need to maintain the spin coherence. Overall, however, the STT requires much less write current than conventional or toggle MRAM.
Comparison with other systems
The main determinant of a memory system's cost is the density of the components used to make it up. Smaller components, and less of them, means that more "cells" can be packed onto a single chip, which in turn means more can be produced at once from a single silicon wafer. This improves yield, which is directly related to cost.
DRAM uses small capacitors as a memory element, wires to carry current to and from it, and a transistor to control it – referred to as a "1T1C" cell. Capacitors basically consist of two small metal plates separated by a thin insulator, a single element that can be built as small as the current fabrication technology allows. This makes DRAM the highest density RAM currently available, and thus the least expensive, which is why it is used for the majority of RAM found in a computer.
MRAM is physically similar to DRAM in makeup, although often does not require a transistor for the write operation. However, as mentioned above, the most basic MRAM cell suffers from the half-select problem, which limits cell sizes to around 180 nm or more. Toggle-mode MRAM offers a much smaller size before this becomes a problem, apparently around 90 nm, the same size as most current DRAM products. To be worth putting into wide production, however, it is generally believed that MRAM will have to move to the 65 nm size of the most advanced memory devices, which will require the use of STT.
Since the capacitors used in DRAM lose their charge over time, memory assemblies using them must periodically refresh all the cells in their chips, reading each one and re-writing its contents. This demands a constant power supply, which is why DRAM loses its memory when power is turned off on the computer. As DRAM cells decrease in size, the refresh cycles become shorter, and the power draw more continuous.
In contrast, MRAM requires no refresh at any time. Not only does this mean it retains its memory with the power turned off, but also that there is no constant power draw. While the read process theoretically requires more power than the same process in a DRAM, in practice the difference appears to be very close to zero. However, the write process requires more power in order to overcome the existing field stored in the junction, varying from three to eight times the power required during reading. Although the exact amount of power savings depends on the nature of the work – more frequent writing will require more power – in general MRAM proponents expect much lower power consumption (up to 99% less) compared to DRAM. STT-based MRAMs eliminate the difference between reading and writing, further reducing power requirements.
It is also worth comparing MRAM with another common memory system, Flash RAM. Like MRAM, Flash does not lose its memory when power is removed, which makes it very common as a "hard disk replacement" in small devices such as the iPod or digital cameras. When used for reading, Flash and MRAM are very similar in power requirements. However, Flash is re-written using a large pulse of voltage (about 10 V) that is stored up over time in a , which is both power-hungry and time consuming. Additionally the current pulse physically degrades the Flash cells, which means Flash can only be written to some fixed number of times before it must be replaced.
In contrast, MRAM requires only slightly more power to write than read, and no change in the voltage, eliminating the need for a charge pump. This leads to much faster operation, lower power consumption, and no effective "lifetime". These advantages are so overwhelming that it is expected Flash will be the first memory type to eventually be replaced by MRAM.
DRAM speed is limited by the speed at which the current stored in the cells can be drained (for reading) or stored (for writing). MRAM operation is based on measuring voltages rather than currents, so there is less "settling time" needed. IBM researchers have demonstrated MRAM devices with access times on the order of 2 ns, somewhat better than even the most advanced DRAMs built on much newer processes. The differences compared to Flash are far more significant, with similar performance for reads, but as much as thousands of times faster for writes.
The only current memory technology that easily competes with MRAM in terms of speed is Static RAM, or SRAM. SRAM consists of a series of transistors arranged in a , which will hold one of two states as long as power is applied. Since the transistors have a very low power requirement, their switching time is very low. However, since an SRAM cell consists of several transistors, typically four or six, its density is much lower than DRAM. This makes it expensive, which is why it is used only for small amounts of high-speed memory, notably the CPU cache in most modern CPU designs.
Although MRAM is not quite as fast as SRAM, it is close enough to be interesting even in this role. Given its much higher density, a CPU designer may be inclined to use MRAM to offer a much larger but somewhat slower cache, rather than a smaller but faster one. It remains to be seen how this trade off will play out in the future.
MRAM has similar speeds to SRAM, similar density but much lower power consumption than DRAM, and is much faster and suffers no degradation over time in comparison to Flash memory. It is this combination of features that some suggest make it the "universal memory", able to replace SRAM, DRAM and EEPROM and Flash. This also explains the huge amount of research being carried out into developing it.
However, market forces have to date kept MRAM out of widespread use. Intense pressure in the Flash market has driven vendors to aggressively introduce newer versions on the very latest fabs, producing 1 Gbit parts on the (currently) highest density 65 nm processes. DRAM offers considerably less return on investment due to overproduction, so most DDR2 DRAM is produced on a one-generation-old 90 nm process.
In comparison, MRAM is still largely "in development", and being produced on older non-critical fabs. The only commercial product widely available at this point is Freescale Semiconductor's 4 Mbit part, produced on a several-generations-old 180 nm process. As demand for Flash continues to outstrip supply, it appears it will be some time before a company can afford to "give up" one of their latest fabs for MRAM production. Even then, MRAM designs currently do not come close to Flash in terms of cell size, even using the same fab.
Why is MRAM in the news now:
MRAM was and is being researched seriously by IBM and Freescale Semiconductors. Now , Freescale Semiconductors has taken MRAM to the market and selling it at $25.00 per chip .The chips have a density of 4 Mbits/sq.mm. Freescale believes that it will have an edge over IBM by starting early because it gain experience on how consumers react and the marketing experience that goes with it.
Find more in the coming few days....I'll be bringin forth more tech news.
Oh, Ive also decided on the next technical article "Reverse Hyperthreading by AMD. Is it already implemented in the released AM2 processors?"
Posted by Unknown at 9:09 PM